Processes on the emergent landscapes of biochemical reaction networks and heterogeneous cell population dynamics: differentiation in living matters.

Processes on the emergent landscapes of biochemical reaction networks and heterogeneous cell population dynamics: differentiation in living matters.

The idea of ​​the pickup has been widely used in thinking about the nonlinear dynamics of organisms and biological phenomena as a system and as a process. The idea of ​​a landscape with valleys and mountains encoding several attractors, however, has a rigorous foundation only for a closed, non-driven thermodynamics, chemical systems, such as proteins.

Recent advances in the theory of stochastic nonlinear dynamical systems and applications to network mesoscopic reaction, the reaction at a time, has provided a new basis for the open landscape, driven biochemical reaction system under continuous chemostat.

The same theory applies not only to the dynamics of intracellular biochemical regulatory networks in individual cells but also for network dynamics interact heterogeneous cell population.

Landscape for individual cells, a population of isogenic cells goes for non-interacting under the same environmental conditions, defined in the counting room intracellular chemical composition x = (x1, x2, …, xn) in a cell, where xℓ is the concentration of biochemical species ℓth.

Equivalent to xℓ heterogeneous cell population dynamics is the cell number density of cell types ℓth. One of the insights from the perspective of the landscape is that the life histories of individual organisms, which occurred on the hillside landscape, almost deterministic and ‘programmed’, while population-wise an asynchronous non-equilibrium steady state Resides mostly in lowland landscapes.

We found a dynamic bifurcation ‘blue-sky’, as a representation of the landscape Waddington, is a more robust mechanism for cell fate decisions and subsequent differentiation of the pitch-fork bifurcation broadly described.

We return, in terms of the driving forces on active chemostatic, live material, notions of near-equilibrium thermodynamics branch vs. far-from-equilibrium state. Emerging landscape perspective enables the quantitative discussion of various biological phenomena as nonlinear, stochastic dynamics.

Processes on the emergent landscapes of biochemical reaction networks and heterogeneous cell population dynamics: differentiation in living matters.
Processes on the emergent landscapes of biochemical reaction networks and heterogeneous cell population dynamics: differentiation in living matters.

An ubiquitin-binding molecule can work as an inhibitor of ubiquitin processing enzymes and ubiquitin receptors.

Ubiquitin plays a critical role in regulating a variety of biological processes, and dysregulation associated with various diseases. Therefore, it is important to have a tool that can control the ubiquitin pathway in order to improve the understanding of this pathway and to develop therapies against diseases that are relevant.

We found that the Chicago Sky Blue 6B direct binding to β-groove, the main interacting surfaces ubiquitin. Therefore, it could successfully inhibit the enzymatic activity of enzymes processing ubiquitin and ubiquitin binding to CXCR4, the cell surface receptor ubiquitin.

In addition, we showed that this chemical binds ubiquitin can effectively suppress the ubiquitin induced cancer cell migration by inhibiting ubiquitin-CXCR4 interaction. The current results indicate that ubiquitin binding molecules can be developed as an inhibitor of ubiquitin-protein interactions, which will have a value not only in the opening of the biological role of ubiquitin but also in treating related diseases.